This huge site located in Pakistan, in the valley of the Indus River, is considered by UNESCO to be the first city that designed the man. And it is surprising that a construction dating from between 2,600 and 1,600 BC, raises such an extremely careful urban plot. Much more than other cities that could exist in contemporary times in ancient Mesopotamia or in the Egypt of the pharaohs.
The truth is that about Mohendo-Daro there are more unknowns than certainties, but it is still an exciting site for lovers of history and architecture. It was the great city of a culture that has been called the Indus Valley, since in the course of this river other populations have been found as similarities, such as the site ofHarappa.
And the wonder of Mohendo-Daro is that its urban plan has come down to us almost intact, and that's because the city was abandoned, almost entirely at one point. The causes of this abandonment are unknown, but the reasons would have to be found in the river. The waters of the Indus were the ones that fertilized the surrounding land, but it is a flow that in times of flooding practically flooded everything, and perhaps the city was abandoned, fed up with the continuous flooding. Or perhaps, after one of those floods, the river changed its course, somethingcommon in such flat territory, and made access to water more difficult.
But before that, Mohendo-Daro became the residence of up to 35,000 people. And such a population lived in a perfectly planned city, something that is discovered when seeing its two clearly differentiated parts, the Citadel and the Valley. And both areas are protected by a powerful brick wall that has more or less 5 kilometers in perimeter.
In the first, it would be the area of power. There would be religious and administrative buildings, as well as public baths, as well as a large warehouse to store crops.
While the lowest area would be residential. The place where the remains of the houses are, but also of the workshops or commercial stores. So far everything is very similar to other archaeological sites. But the difference is that in Mohendo-Daro the entire urban fabric responds to a perfectly organized design based on straight lines. And where there are also surprising details, such as the sewage system that is considered the oldest in the world. Or that in each house there was a bathroom. And all this in the III millennium before Christ.
Unfortunately, we can only admire this entire complex at ground level, since we have not received the elevations of the buildings, and therefore, it cannot be said that they had a specific architectural style. However, that does not prevent Mohendo-Daro from being one of the great treasures of Pakistan. And although it is not as well known as thecultures that arose on the Nile, the Tigris or the Euphrates, that is, Egypt or Mesopotamia, the truth is that the Indus Valley culture that it represents must also be considered one of the cradles of civilization.