We all identify Ancient Egypt with the empire of the pharaohs, their famous temples and pyramids. However, even before that fabulous civilization occurred, in the Nubian region, long before such fantastic sites as Abu Simbel were built, there was already an important population and culture.
Nabta Playa Cromlech
It developed in the current Nubian desert, in the area of Nabta Playa, although around the 10th millennium BC that place had a different climate, with much more water and vegetation, especially in summer. This is why a Neolithic people settled there who lived by gathering and surely began to herd cattle.
That culture was nomadic, and this area was occupied only during one time of the year, since they were looking for the best pastures and the ideal places for harvesting. However, going back and forth to this area of Nabta Playa caused them to build settlements that have been unearthed by archaeologists in recent decades.
Of all these ancient remains, the most spectacular is the one known as Crómlech de Nabta Playa, a megalithic structure some 1000 years older than the famous Stonehenge in England, with which it's impossible not to compare it.
The megalithic complex of Nubia, the vast majority of archaeologists date it between 6,000 and 5,600 BC. That is, forthen those tribes had been coming to Nabta Playa for several millennia, and therefore they knew this environment perfectly.
In fact the chrome is related to that environment. Almost all researchers think that they have some astronomical interpretation, and that it would very possibly be used in certain rites of the summer solstice, as satellites have verified that the alignments of its stones indicate the precise place of sunrise on that day.
Compared to Stonehenge, its dimensions are certainly smaller. It is a circle of large stones, some of which have been knocked down, while others have stood the test of thousands of years embedded in the ground. And within that circle, there are another six featured stones. In addition there are several external formations radial to the core of the cromlech.
As usually happens in this type of demonstration, there are more doubts than certainties, and even more so for a culture that surely disappeared due to climatic changes that turned the old orchard of Nabta Playa into a desert. However, there are researchers of Ancient History who think that much of their culture and knowledge were inherited by the Egypt of the pharaohs.