This Mesa Verde site together with others scattered throughout the Chaco Canyon, such as the one at Pueblo Bonito, are the main vestiges of one of the most enigmatic towns that inhabited this area of United States. We mean the Anasazi. A people that at a given moment in history disappeared for unknown reasons, and about which historians, archaeologists and pseudoscientists have not stopped speculating in recent years.
Mesa Verde Field
All these speculations are undoubtedly due to the fact that they were a culturally advanced people, given the structures built that have survived to this day. And where very clear traces have been found that certain ceramic, textile and irrigation techniques dominated. And although interesting sets of cave paintings have been found, nothing seems to indicate that they had any type of writing, or that they knew the wheel.
Its population centers have been located along the region of Four Corners, that is, the so-called four corners where the current states of converge Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico.
In all that territory they would initially live in less closed territories than the cliffs that protect the constructions of Mesa Verde. In places like Pueblo Bonito del Cañón Chaco. In fact, there would be aa kind of pilgrimage center until the beginning of the 12th century. However, possibly for climatic reasons, at one point they sought refuge in those more protected locations, both from inclement weather and possible enemies.
And that's how they created this site whose most spectacular part is called by the demonstrative name of Cliff Palace, Palacio del Acantilado. A place that was inhabited since the end of the 12th century and was abandoned around 1300, possibly due to food supply problems.
Constructively, the use of mortar with earth, water and ash to join the carved sandstone is striking. Besides that wooden beams were added and the walls were plastered to protect them.
The most charismatic of the Anasazi constructions are the kivas. These are round constructions sunken below the ground, of which there are more than twenty in Cliff Palace. And in addition, the one known as Casa Torre Cuadrada stands out from the whole set, the tallest building and that today is perfectly restored.
In short, that this site, although not very large, tells us of a stable population settled in the territory, but which nonetheless disappeared. Perhaps it was due to clashes with other cultures such as the Navajo, although there is no evidence of this. Perhaps due to internecine struggles among the Anasazi themselves. Perhaps due to droughts and poor harvests, which seems most likely. And according to some, we must look for the reasons inpossible abductions of extraterrestrial origin, of which of course there is no material or documentary evidence, but these theories exist and are published.