Unlike other codices of the pre-Hispanic cultures, the Codex Borgia is actually from a time before the arrival of the Spanish to the American continent. That is why there are no annotations in our language, nor translations. Which makes it difficult to assign a specific origin.
Furthermore, its own theme, showing rituals, calendars and divinatory cycles, means that neither specific names nor real geographical locations are mentioned. So it cannot be assigned to an exact area. However, historians seem to be in favor of relating it mainly to two areas of Mexico. For some it was done in the surroundings of Puebla or Oaxaca. While bulls place them more in the area of Veracruz.
Codex Borgia, page 23
Codex Borgia, page 21
The thing is that all researchers date it between the 14th and 15th centuries, and it is considered, together with the Codex Zouche-Nutall, one of the great jewels of Mixtec art. And curiously, both are very far from their homeland, since while the Nutall is in the British Museum in London, theCodex Borgia is kept in the Library of the Vatican Palaces, where it came to be donated by Cardinal Stefano Borgia, hence its name.
Materially it is a long skinof deer, a skin tanned in its more than 10 meters of extension, and that was folded in the form of a screen creating 39 square sections of about 27 cm. sideways. And to that tanned skin, a thin layer of stucco was then applied, to whiten it, smooth it and make it easier to draw and color on it.
Codex Borgia, page 71
As for that drawing, it is exposed very clearly, since all the figures are defined and delimited by a black line, whose interior is filled with color, always without nuances or shading, only the color stain. A technique in principle very simple and somewhat naive. Quite the opposite of its theme, which for our culture is practically indecipherable, due to the many mysteries and stories it tells, thanks to which we can also get an idea of the rituals and even the entertainment of the Mixtec culture.